4月 05

Today’s lecture looks at 150 years of modern history, grasps the rhythm of history, and considers modern Japanese coordinate axes.
1 · Mass media is a message of the public that reflects the modern society. History is also the message of the pioneers who survived that era. I think that there is a universal law in the message of history.

2. By deciphering the message of history, we can objectively observe the swinging present age and at the same time vaguely see the future scenario to come.

3. Considering the history of humanity as millions of years, we think that in the next hundreds of years, hundreds of millions of years, we will survive. The thousands of years of civilization are relatively short periods of time, considering the millions of years of humanity that continues endlessly.

4. History is a mirror that illuminates the future. The near future is something that you create yourself.

5 Arnold Toynby 1889-1975 British historian
First, Toin Bee denies a historical view centered on the nation, and presents a historical view centered on a civilized society. Toin Bee defeats the superiority of Western European civilization, while being a first generation civilization: Sumer, Egypt, Minos, Indus, Indé, 殷, Maya, Andes, Second Civilization: Hellenic (Greece-Rome), Syria, Hittite, Babylonia, India Try to describe, from a world-historical point of view, China, Mexico, Yucatan, and the third generation civilization Europe, Greek Orthodox Christianity, Russia, Iran, Arab, Hindu, Far East, Japan, Korea, more than 21 civilizations . Toynbee thought that the civilizations up to this third generation were historically a parent-child relationship, and that civilization would shift from generation, growth, decline, dismantling to the next generation of civilization.

6 · While Toynbee is based on such a historical perspective, civilization is caused by two conditions of external natural and human environment and creative leaders, and challenges of climate change, natural environment, war, ethnic migration and population growth Grow in response to However, civilization will begin to weaken and decline by failing to respond to challenges. So the leader loses the ability to respond to new situations, the society will not follow the leader and the unity will be lost. In the end, the progress of internal divisions strengthens the power for leaders, and as a result, the public formulaizes that the civilization is dismantled through rebellion by the proletariat.

7. Arnold Toynby’s “Study of History”
A philosophical view through the historical and cultural background
Toin Bie is a research director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in the United Kingdom over the course of 30 years from 1925 to 54, the rule governing the historical process of the emergence, growth, decline, and dismantling of existing civilizations. Studied. I applied it and analyzed the present condition from the viewpoint of unity, sustainability, concurrency and simultaneity of civilization.

8 ・ As a specific example, Toin Bie analyzes that the experience that the 1914 World War brought to the European civilization and the experience that the 431 BC Peloponnesian war brought to the British civilization are simultaneous, and also the Manchurian Incident outbreak In doing so, they made the insight that it was the fate of Carthage who fought against the Roman Empire on the significance of Japan’s responsibility.

9 ・ From Invy’s point of view, the period in which civilization was created is only a short period when viewed from the length of human history, and we reach the idea that humanity repeats the same thing in the thousands of years of that civilization.

10 · By applying Toynbee’s ideas as think tank activities, it is thought that a more reliable concept will be created. The following is a list of readings from Toynbee’s history studies, with particular emphasis on suggestions.

11. By thinking of the present as a far-off past event, we can calmly look at the synchronicity with the past times in the history. Look at history in a binocular manner. History is not just a collection of facts, it is revelation.

12. The academic distinction between history and social sciences is coincidental, and this traditional barrier must be broken and thrown into integrated research on human issues.

13. By helping fellowships belonging to different civilizations and understanding each other’s history, it is possible to find out the common achievements and common property of all humanity and lessen their hostility.

14. It is acknowledged that in the history of a civilization that has fallen, another solution has been found to rectify the situation, even if it has not always been successful. That is the ideal of coordination. It is the League of Nations and the United Nations that the spirit has appeared in the present age. The ideal of this coordination was also the idea of Confucius and Lao Tzu. The goal in politics is to find a middle ground between deadly conflicts and knockouts.

15. In peace coexistence in the form of peace competition, in order to win the other party, it is necessary to take advantage of the other party’s strengths and cover their own weaknesses. Then, mutual approach is performed in such work. This line is a middle line.

16. The United Nations itself is not directly connected to the people of each country in the world. It is connected through the government. We need a UN that leads directly to the people.

17. It is important to create a powerful world government that can impose heavy taxes on rich countries for the benefit of poor countries. If poor people become too provocative or violent, this has to create a state of ineffableness, so we have to find a middle ground.

18. The history of religious war in Western Europe shows evidence that mental problems can not be solved by force. If it is so, there is no way other than solving by force, but solving by creating a new world political system.

19 ・ When looking at history, we find that our point of view is largely determined by the time and place where each of us happened to be born. A person’s view is a view of a specific individual, a specific nation, a specific society. If we want to look at history as it is, we must depart from it, but we must transcend this local view.

20. In the age of nuclear power, human beings must learn to live as a single family if they do not destroy themselves. This is the truth that Japan can learn and convey to others.

21. While the history of civilization is multiple and repetitive, the history of religion is one and seems to be progressive. In Judaism-derived Christianity and Islam, it is important to have a forgiving spirit that one religion is different but one is revelation.

22. As long as we are dealing with mass media, it is as if we were always brainwashed. So I decided to slam shut all the news pages and leave these orders, and often I would like to see the end of things that would hide in the bottom of the situation. That’s when I want to go back to history

Arnold Toynby wrote his study of history in 1966.
It is still a time when the United States and the USSR cut cold war rallies across the Cuban crisis, Kennedy assassination and Khrushchevism, the US Air Force launched a bombing on Vietnam, and China is rushing into a cultural revolution. Japan signed the Japan-Korea Treaty with the South Korean government and was trying to obtain the minimum guarantee of Far East Asia. The whole school association went on a daily demonstration and shouted “American imperialistism, Soviet starringism, Japan-Korea treaty!”

24. It is at this time that McLuhan wrote that “media is the message.”
In a word, Toynbee’s “History study” is “Civilization disappears if it grows too much.”

10 major events of modern history
1 ・ Sepoi Rebellion 1857-59
Rebellion against British rule in India, peasants revolt but fail. British direct governance begins. First war of independence.

2. Meiji Restoration 1867
The philosophers who contributed to the royal republic, the chief alliance, and the reign of the great government were influenced by President Lincoln who won in the Civil War (1861-65).
Iwakura Gumi’s tour of the West in 1871 1 year and 10 months, Ito Hirofumi’s “Hinomaru Speech”, the first Japanese speech by Japanese in English

3-The Sino-Japanese War 1894, the Three Kingdoms Interference 1895
Russia, France, Germany interfere after the conclusion of the Sino-Japanese peace treaty
1902 Japan-British Alliance to Hold Russia into Asia

4. The Russo-Japanese War 1904-5
The Togo Heihachiro defeats the Baltic fleet, the Portsmouth Treaty Komura Kotaro

5. Ito Hirobumi assassination by Harukae Harpin Station Critique of Japanese Imperialism Japan-Korea alliance 1910

6. The Chinese Revolution The Xinjiang Revolution 1911
1924 Sun Asia University Asiaticism Whether to become a dog of Western supremacy or torture of royal royal road, it takes a detailed consideration and careful adoption of the Japanese people

7. Manchurian incident
1931 Kanto army exploded South Manchuan Railway route (Liangyan Lake case), 1932 Litton Survey Team, recommended by the Special Assembly of the League of Nations, Yosuke Matsuoka Right to withdraw from the International Federation 1 hour, 20 minutes without English manuscript
Inazo Nitobe Deputy Director General of the International Federation Bushido

8. Pacific War Pearl Harbor attack December 8th, 1941 Early morning attack the Pacific fleet of Oahu Island Arizona No. 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings

9. Korea War 1950-53 Vietnam War 1965-73 US forces bombed North Vietnam, US forces withdrew from South Vietnam, communism, nationalist forces guerrilla activity, Communist containment policy

10. End of the Cold War Collapse of the Berlin Wall November 9, 1989 Soviet Collapse
The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, Iraq war 2003, Lehman shock 2008

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