6月 05

1 · 2016 was a year of change, a year of high uncertainty. The UK ‘s withdrawal from the EU, the emergence of the new president of Trump, contrary to US forecasts.
2 · Amid such geopolitical changes, it is necessary to construct a ground design for the stability and peace of East Asia, a grand design strategy.
3 · The problem of the dismissal of the president of South Korea, which is a distant country nearby, and a large-scale demonstration that is unimaginable are spreading mainly to young people.
4 · Territorial issue of the Senkaku Islands and the Spratly Islands in China, slowing economic growth rate, the adverse effect of one child policy. 5. Despite Russian President Vladimir Putin coming to Japan, the return of the Northern Territory is not realized. Large-scale economic development and cooperation of the Northern Territories will progress but they seem to proceed at the pace of Russia. The strength of President Putin ‘s power and presence will move with the intention of Russia on the Middle East problem and the Ukraine problem.
6 · In North Korea, four years have passed since the death of General Kim Jong Il. Kim Jong Il’s successor, Kim Jong Il, is working on nuclear development and missile development and has makde the experiment successful. The presence of North Korea, which is advancing military hegemony within Northeast Asia, is increasing.
7 · US playing cards The next president’s foreign policy is direct negotiation by bilateral pragmatism. He said that it can be said that direct negotiations can produce results on the North Korean problem. The ministerial personnel of the Trump regime is centered on the heavy economic and military hardliners. It is thought that it shifts from international collaborationism to domestic single countryism. The krealization of the TPP originated in the United States was blocked by the United States. Anglo – Saxon ‘s globalization is undergoing a trend towards anti – globalization by Anglo – Saxon.
8 · There are four patterns of security. It is cooperative security advocating the importance of hard power of stable hegemony, power balanced type, collective security, economic cooperation and cultural exchange. Security is formed by combining these four patterns.
9 21st century white campus, I will consider the East Asia Grand Design concept which draws the dream and Roman peace concept in East Asia. Provide abundant and excellent workforce in China, funds and technology through Asian Infrastructure Development Bank, Korea’s financial and technical capabilities, abundant natural resources in Russia in the Far East, rare and rich natural resources in Mongolia, rich natural resources in North Korea A spontaneous economic sphere concept is established by coordinating comprehensively with abundant and excellent workforce and abundant natural resources.
10 · New President Trump plans to promote the development of large-scale infrastructure for the creation of jobs in the US while utilizing government funds as well as private funds. It is a concept of infrastructure development by the dispatch of fiscal policy. Practice infrastructure development with similar fiscal policy to East Asia. The objective is cooperative security through infrastructure development.
11 · The military tension is rising on the 38th line of the Korean Peninsula, such as the difference in the development stage of the economy, the conflict of ideology, the division of the North-South morning game. How do we find common points of coincidence between countries and countries that conflict in such geopolitical tension?

In the Northeast Asia where the Cold War structure still remains, if we promote large-scale infrastructure development, it seems likely that the economic sphere where all the countries of the parties countries transcending conflict and conflict become win-win will be established

13 · If conflicts and warfare occur in this area, there is the possibility that it will be the third world war that South Korea, Japan and the United States will confront China, Russia, North Korea. If conflict occurs, it will lead to disastrous consequences. In addition, huge funds are needed for reconstruction assistance.

14 · Mr. Bhatros Gari, secretary general of the United Nations, announced “Issues for Peace” in early 1990. Preventive diplomacy, peacekeeping, peacebuilding, peacebuilding are also four. Preventive diplomacy to prevent disputes. For example, an excellent dentist treats it so that it does not become a tooth decay. A bad dentist pulls a decayed tooth like a surgical operation, when a conflict occurs, work is centered on maintaining peace and peace building. Discussion and consultation with the parties to the conflict are lrepeated to maintain and build peace.

15 · If you see the night view of Northeast Asia from NASA’s spaceship, North Korea is darker than Korea. It clearly shows the difference between the power shortage and the development stage of economic activity. Construct railway networks, roads, natural gas pipelines, powerless grids and information networks across the border in this region. Trust building is established by promoting economic exchange.

16 · AIIB led by China is moving. The World Bank was built for the purpose of I multilateral cooperation as a product of World War II. It is necessary for the Asia-Pacific mechanism to complement the World Bank, the infrastructure development organization of people in the West, 70 years after the war. Manila has Asian Development Bank, which Japan and the United States take the initiative.

17 · If China-led AIIB and Japan-led ADB are integrated, a financial mechanism comparable to the World Bank will be established which is the basis of full-fledged infrastructure development in East Asia. Promote development of Northeast Asia with high uncertainty through the mechanism of this multilateral cooperation.

18 · The United States is not a member of AIIB. The United States has a movement to join the AIIB by the inauguration of the new administration. Although the confrontation structure between the United States places restrictions on the accession of AIIB to the United States, if it is judged as pragmatism that infrastructure development will be advantageous to the US government and the US company, it will become full-fledged of AIIB in the United States.

19 · Japan is not a member of the AIIB because of the hegemony of China, but as it is, an important player Japan will fall to the existence outside the mosquito net.

20 · It is believed that the United States will appeal to the expenses of the US military stationed in the US and the burden of consideration budget. The peace of power balance that has been maintained by the Japan-U.S. Alliance is a

5月 05

京都大学 経済学部
セミナー開催 13:00-16:00
テーマ:東アジアのグランドデザイン 経済協力と協調的安全保障 京都大学に留学している韓国、中国、欧米の学生、約20人と世界の欧米アジアの3極経済構造の中で、21世紀の経済成長が最も期 待されているアジアにおいて、如何なる経済発展の潜在性があるか、また軍事による安全保障を代替する経済協力を主眼とした協調 的安全保障について英語で意見交換がなされた。

京都大学 経済学部 大学院講義

4月 05

Today’s lecture looks at 150 years of modern history, grasps the rhythm of history, and considers modern Japanese coordinate axes.
1 · Mass media is a message of the public that reflects the modern society. History is also the message of the pioneers who survived that era. I think that there is a universal law in the message of history.

2. By deciphering the message of history, we can objectively observe the swinging present age and at the same time vaguely see the future scenario to come.

3. Considering the history of humanity as millions of years, we think that in the next hundreds of years, hundreds of millions of years, we will survive. The thousands of years of civilization are relatively short periods of time, considering the millions of years of humanity that continues endlessly.

4. History is a mirror that illuminates the future. The near future is something that you create yourself.

5 Arnold Toynby 1889-1975 British historian
First, Toin Bee denies a historical view centered on the nation, and presents a historical view centered on a civilized society. Toin Bee defeats the superiority of Western European civilization, while being a first generation civilization: Sumer, Egypt, Minos, Indus, Indé, 殷, Maya, Andes, Second Civilization: Hellenic (Greece-Rome), Syria, Hittite, Babylonia, India Try to describe, from a world-historical point of view, China, Mexico, Yucatan, and the third generation civilization Europe, Greek Orthodox Christianity, Russia, Iran, Arab, Hindu, Far East, Japan, Korea, more than 21 civilizations . Toynbee thought that the civilizations up to this third generation were historically a parent-child relationship, and that civilization would shift from generation, growth, decline, dismantling to the next generation of civilization.

6 · While Toynbee is based on such a historical perspective, civilization is caused by two conditions of external natural and human environment and creative leaders, and challenges of climate change, natural environment, war, ethnic migration and population growth Grow in response to However, civilization will begin to weaken and decline by failing to respond to challenges. So the leader loses the ability to respond to new situations, the society will not follow the leader and the unity will be lost. In the end, the progress of internal divisions strengthens the power for leaders, and as a result, the public formulaizes that the civilization is dismantled through rebellion by the proletariat.

7. Arnold Toynby’s “Study of History”
A philosophical view through the historical and cultural background
Toin Bie is a research director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in the United Kingdom over the course of 30 years from 1925 to 54, the rule governing the historical process of the emergence, growth, decline, and dismantling of existing civilizations. Studied. I applied it and analyzed the present condition from the viewpoint of unity, sustainability, concurrency and simultaneity of civilization.

8 ・ As a specific example, Toin Bie analyzes that the experience that the 1914 World War brought to the European civilization and the experience that the 431 BC Peloponnesian war brought to the British civilization are simultaneous, and also the Manchurian Incident outbreak In doing so, they made the insight that it was the fate of Carthage who fought against the Roman Empire on the significance of Japan’s responsibility.

9 ・ From Invy’s point of view, the period in which civilization was created is only a short period when viewed from the length of human history, and we reach the idea that humanity repeats the same thing in the thousands of years of that civilization.

10 · By applying Toynbee’s ideas as think tank activities, it is thought that a more reliable concept will be created. The following is a list of readings from Toynbee’s history studies, with particular emphasis on suggestions.

11. By thinking of the present as a far-off past event, we can calmly look at the synchronicity with the past times in the history. Look at history in a binocular manner. History is not just a collection of facts, it is revelation.

12. The academic distinction between history and social sciences is coincidental, and this traditional barrier must be broken and thrown into integrated research on human issues.

13. By helping fellowships belonging to different civilizations and understanding each other’s history, it is possible to find out the common achievements and common property of all humanity and lessen their hostility.

14. It is acknowledged that in the history of a civilization that has fallen, another solution has been found to rectify the situation, even if it has not always been successful. That is the ideal of coordination. It is the League of Nations and the United Nations that the spirit has appeared in the present age. The ideal of this coordination was also the idea of Confucius and Lao Tzu. The goal in politics is to find a middle ground between deadly conflicts and knockouts.

15. In peace coexistence in the form of peace competition, in order to win the other party, it is necessary to take advantage of the other party’s strengths and cover their own weaknesses. Then, mutual approach is performed in such work. This line is a middle line.

16. The United Nations itself is not directly connected to the people of each country in the world. It is connected through the government. We need a UN that leads directly to the people.

17. It is important to create a powerful world government that can impose heavy taxes on rich countries for the benefit of poor countries. If poor people become too provocative or violent, this has to create a state of ineffableness, so we have to find a middle ground.

18. The history of religious war in Western Europe shows evidence that mental problems can not be solved by force. If it is so, there is no way other than solving by force, but solving by creating a new world political system.

19 ・ When looking at history, we find that our point of view is largely determined by the time and place where each of us happened to be born. A person’s view is a view of a specific individual, a specific nation, a specific society. If we want to look at history as it is, we must depart from it, but we must transcend this local view.

20. In the age of nuclear power, human beings must learn to live as a single family if they do not destroy themselves. This is the truth that Japan can learn and convey to others.

21. While the history of civilization is multiple and repetitive, the history of religion is one and seems to be progressive. In Judaism-derived Christianity and Islam, it is important to have a forgiving spirit that one religion is different but one is revelation.

22. As long as we are dealing with mass media, it is as if we were always brainwashed. So I decided to slam shut all the news pages and leave these orders, and often I would like to see the end of things that would hide in the bottom of the situation. That’s when I want to go back to history

Arnold Toynby wrote his study of history in 1966.
It is still a time when the United States and the USSR cut cold war rallies across the Cuban crisis, Kennedy assassination and Khrushchevism, the US Air Force launched a bombing on Vietnam, and China is rushing into a cultural revolution. Japan signed the Japan-Korea Treaty with the South Korean government and was trying to obtain the minimum guarantee of Far East Asia. The whole school association went on a daily demonstration and shouted “American imperialistism, Soviet starringism, Japan-Korea treaty!”

24. It is at this time that McLuhan wrote that “media is the message.”
In a word, Toynbee’s “History study” is “Civilization disappears if it grows too much.”

10 major events of modern history
1 ・ Sepoi Rebellion 1857-59
Rebellion against British rule in India, peasants revolt but fail. British direct governance begins. First war of independence.

2. Meiji Restoration 1867
The philosophers who contributed to the royal republic, the chief alliance, and the reign of the great government were influenced by President Lincoln who won in the Civil War (1861-65).
Iwakura Gumi’s tour of the West in 1871 1 year and 10 months, Ito Hirofumi’s “Hinomaru Speech”, the first Japanese speech by Japanese in English

3-The Sino-Japanese War 1894, the Three Kingdoms Interference 1895
Russia, France, Germany interfere after the conclusion of the Sino-Japanese peace treaty
1902 Japan-British Alliance to Hold Russia into Asia

4. The Russo-Japanese War 1904-5
The Togo Heihachiro defeats the Baltic fleet, the Portsmouth Treaty Komura Kotaro

5. Ito Hirobumi assassination by Harukae Harpin Station Critique of Japanese Imperialism Japan-Korea alliance 1910

6. The Chinese Revolution The Xinjiang Revolution 1911
1924 Sun Asia University Asiaticism Whether to become a dog of Western supremacy or torture of royal royal road, it takes a detailed consideration and careful adoption of the Japanese people

7. Manchurian incident
1931 Kanto army exploded South Manchuan Railway route (Liangyan Lake case), 1932 Litton Survey Team, recommended by the Special Assembly of the League of Nations, Yosuke Matsuoka Right to withdraw from the International Federation 1 hour, 20 minutes without English manuscript
Inazo Nitobe Deputy Director General of the International Federation Bushido

8. Pacific War Pearl Harbor attack December 8th, 1941 Early morning attack the Pacific fleet of Oahu Island Arizona No. 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings

9. Korea War 1950-53 Vietnam War 1965-73 US forces bombed North Vietnam, US forces withdrew from South Vietnam, communism, nationalist forces guerrilla activity, Communist containment policy

10. End of the Cold War Collapse of the Berlin Wall November 9, 1989 Soviet Collapse
The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, Iraq war 2003, Lehman shock 2008

3月 05

セミナー開催 15:20-16:50
参加者 龍谷大学学生と留学生 150人
テーマ: 東アジアの平和構築について トインビーの歴史の研究と哲学思想 東アジアも平和構築を考察するためには近代史の歴史を考察するのみならず2500年の哲学思想や歴史学者トインビーが研究した人 類の潜在的な行動や歴史の同時性についての鋭く深い洞察力を養う必要がある。アクティブラーニングの形式で学生が主役となる意 義のあるセミナーが開催された。

歴史のリズムを眺望                           中野 有


2・歴史というメッセージを解読することにより、揺れ動く現代が客観的に観察できると同時に、来るべき未来のシナリオが漠然 と観えてくるものである。



5・アーノルド・トインビー 1889-1975 イギリスの歴史学者

6・トインビーがこのような歴史観に基づきながら文明は外部における自然・人間環境と創造的な指導者の二つの条件によって発生し、気候変動や自然環境、戦争、民族移動、人口の増大の挑戦に応戦しながら成長する。しかし文明は挑戦に応戦することに失敗することによって弱体化をはじめ、衰退に向かうようになる。そこで指導者は新しい事態への対応能力を失い、社会は指導者に従わなくなり、統一性が損なわれる。最後には内部分裂が進むことで指導者は 保身のために権力を強化し、結果的に大衆はプロレタリアートによる反抗を通じて文明は解体されるとトインビーは定式化する。


8・ 具体例として、トインビーは、1914年の世界大戦がヨーロッパ文明にもたらした経験と、紀元前431年のペロポネソス戦争がイギリス文明にもたらした経験とが同時性があると分析し、また満州事変勃発に際し、日本の責任の重大性についてローマ帝国と戦ったカルタゴの運命であるという洞察を行ったのである。

9・ インビーの視点では、人類の歴史の長さから観ると文明を生みだした期間はほんの短期間であり、その文明の何千年という期間に人類は同じことを繰り返すという考えに達するのである。





14.衰退に至った文明の歴史の中に、必ずしも実現することに成功しなかったとしても、事態を収拾する別の解決法が発見されたことが認められる。それが協調の理想である。その精神が現代に現れたのが、国際連盟と国際連合である。この協調の理想は、孔子や老子がいだいた思想でもあった。政治における目標は、致命的な争 いやノックアウト的打撃のあいだの中道を発見することである。





19・歴史を眺める際に、我々の見地が、たまたま我々のおのおのが生まれた時代と場所によって、大部分決定されていることに気がつく。人の見方は特定の個人、特定の国民、特定の社会の見方である。歴史をあるがままの姿において見ようとするならば、われわれはどうしてもそこから出発するほかないが、この局部的な見方を 超越しなければならない。




 まだアメリカとソ連がキューバ危機とケネディ暗殺とフルシチョフ主義を挟んで冷戦の凌ぎを削り、アメリカ空軍がベトナムへの北爆を開始し、中国が文化大革命に突入していた時期である。 日本は韓国政府と日韓条約を結んで、極東アジアの最低限の保障を手に入れようとしていた。全学連は連日のデモを敢行して「 アメリカ帝国主義反対・ソ連スターリニズム反対・日韓条約反対!」を叫んでいた。



2.明治維新 1867年
岩倉具視一行の欧米視察 1871年から1年10ヶ月、伊藤博文の「日の丸演説」、最初の英語による日本人の演説

3・日清戦争 1894年、三国干渉 1895年
1902年 日英同盟 ロシアのアジア進出をけん制

4.日露戦争 1904-5年
東郷平八郎 バルチック艦隊を破る、ポーツマス条約 小村寿太郎

5.安重根による伊藤博文暗殺 ハルピン駅 日本帝国主義批判 日韓同盟 1910年

6.中国の革命 辛亥革命 1911年
1924年 孫文 大アジア主義 西洋覇道の犬となるか、東洋王道の干城となるか、それは日本国民の詳密な考慮と慎重な採択にかかる

1931年 関東軍が南満州鉄道の路線を爆破(柳条湖事件)、1932年リットン調査団、国際連盟特別総会で勧告、松岡洋右 国際連盟脱退 1時間20分の英語の原稿なしの演説 
新渡戸稲造 国際連盟次長 武士道

8.太平洋戦争 真珠湾攻撃 1941年12月8日 日曜の早朝オアフ島の太平洋艦隊を攻撃 アリゾナ号 1945年 広島・長崎原爆投下

9.朝鮮戦争 1950-53年 ベトナム戦争 1965-73年 米軍が北ベトナムを爆撃、米軍が南ベトナムから撤退、共産主義、民族主義勢力がゲリラ活動、共産主義封じ込め政策

10.冷戦の終焉 ベルリンの壁崩壊 1989年11月9日 1991年 ソビエト崩壊
同時多発テロ 2001年9月11日、イラク戦争 2003年、リーマンショック 2008年

2月 05

1. Globalization (UK: Globalization) is a phenomenon in which social or economic linkages extend beyond the borders of old states and regions, etc. to global scale and cause various changes.
A Global Economic Platform Creates the World The World is Flat Thomas Friedman (New York Times Diplomacy Columnist)
It has made it possible for different people to appear, compete, connect and cooperate in different ways from different places in the world than ever before. That has never been seen in the history of the world.
In the future, wealth will turn to countries, businesses and individuals with education and infrastructure that can bring more people to this new setting. My claim is that this stage will change everything over time. It will be as big an event as Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press.
Asia’s entry here is that the formation of this stage overlaps with the opening of Asia’s three major economies-the huge empires of India, China, and the former Soviet Union-. These three billion people will be able to compete, combine and cooperate more directly, easily and cheaply than ever before, just as the global economic arena has leveled off.
2. Sovereign state system
The sovereign state system, which is the basic framework of the modern world order, has various characteristics that each country aims to establish a national economy (establishment of economic independence), and each country establishes and competes with its own culture, value and ideology. The basis of this system is established in Europe from the 16th century to the 17th century (Westfalia Treaty 1648)
3. International community
The concept of an “international community” (UK: International community) with a link of interdependence between nations, international public interest.
The United Nations (United Nations) is an international organization established under the Charter of the United Nations. The national representative functions the United Nations, which consists of 192 countries. It aims to cooperate for the development of world security and economy and society.
4. Regionalism
The world is made up of a tripolar system of the US, Europe and Asia. NAFTA, EU, ASEAN + 3.

12月 05




3・ 活字時代の人間は、一時に一つのことだけを見ていた。今は、同時に多様なメッセージを受けつつある。これまでの人間のように単に視覚だけを働かせるのではなく、五官すべてで、同時に多くのメディア・メッセージを受けているのである。





“The World of McLuhan” Kenichi Takemura Kodansha 226 pages 1968/8

I summarized the essence.

1 · The idea underlying McLuhan theory is that “media is a message.” We usually think of “content transmitted by media” in terms of ordinary messages, but he preachs that “transmission itself is a message.”

2 ・ Therefore, the media itself changes the way of thinking of human beings and changes the way of life of human beings. Even in the same topic, the medium that transmits it changes the impact on humans.

3 · People of print age saw only one thing at a time. Now I am receiving various messages at the same time. Like all human beings, they do not just work with vision, but all five officials receive many media messages at the same time.

4 · Understanding media means understanding people themselves.

5 Human beings and their extensions are media.

6 · Media is a massage. The media is an active process like a masseuse who “looks at people,” and McKruhan thinks it is not a static product.

7 ・ My past experiences and my loneliness of curiosity, when I met McLuhan, were able to turn into a single unit. People around me ask, “What is your professional occupation?” But I have considered it as “living as a human being in the present age”. In the McLuhan style, it means that “I have lived in a role that summarizes

グローバリゼーションとは何か スティーブ・ジョブズから学ぶ 1.グローバリゼーション( 英: Globalization)は、社会的あるいは経済的な連関が、旧来の 国家や地域などの境界を越えて、 地球規模に拡大して様々な変化を惹き起こす現象である。 グローバルな経済的なプラットフォームが創出 世界は平らだ (The world is flat)トーマス・フリードマン (ニューヨークタイムズ 外交コラムニスト) それはこれまでになかった世界のさまざまな場所から、様々な人々が、様々な方法でそこに登場して競争し、むすびつき、協力することを可能にするようになった。それは世界の歴史にかつて見たことのないこと。  将来、富は、より多くの人々をこの新しい舞台に乗ることのできる教育とインフラを有する国、企業、個人に向かう。この舞台は時がたつにつれてすべてのものを変えてしまうだろう、というのが私の主張。それはグーテンベルグの印刷機の発明と同じくらいに大きな出来事になるでしょう。
 ここにアジアが入ってくるのは、この舞台の形成がアジアの三つの大きな経済——インド、中国、そして旧ソ連の巨大な帝国——の開放と重なる。 これら30億の人々は、グローバルな経済活動の場が平らになったまさにこのときに、かつてないほど、より直接的に、簡単に、安く競争し、結合し、協力することができるよう。 2.主権国家体制 近代世界秩序の基本的枠組みである主権国家体制は、各国が 国民経済(経済的自立性の確立)をめざし、各国が固有の文化や価値、イデオロギーを確立して競いあうという諸特徴をもっている。このシステムの基礎は、16世紀から17世紀にかけてのヨーロッパで確立(ウェストファリア条約 1648年) 3.国際共同体 諸国家の相互依存性という結び付きを持った「国際共同体」( 英: International community)という概念、国際公共利益。 国際連合(United Nations)は、 国際連合憲章の下に設立された国際機構である。国家の代表が192カ国で構成される国連を機能させている。世界の 安全保障と経済・ 社会の発展のために協力することを目的とする。 4.地域主義 世界は米、欧、アジアの三極体制で構成されている。NAFTA, EU,ASEAN+3. BRICs〈ブラジル、ロシア、インド、中国。 東アジアの雁行型発展。日本、NIES(4 tigers), ASEAN
5.世界市民主義、地球益、地球市民、世界連邦 コスモポリタニズム( cosmopolitanism)は全世界の人々を自分の同胞ととらえる思想。世界市民主義・世界主義とも呼ばれる。コスモポリタニズムに賛同する人々をコスモポリタンと呼ぶ。 コスモポリタニズムの発展形態として世界国家構想が挙げられる。これは「人種・言語の差を乗り越えた世界平和には全ての国家を統合した世界国家を建設すべきである」という考え方に立って主張されたもので、カントも主張していた。 第二次世界大戦 末期において成立した 国際連合が戦争抑止力の低いことを痛感した世界の科学者・文化人たちがより強力な世界連邦の形成をすすめることで、世界から戦争を無くしていこうと決意し1946年 ルクセンブルクにおいて「世界連邦政府のための世界運動」を起こした。この運動には バートランド・ラッセル、 アルベルト・アインシュタイン、 アルベルト・シュバイツァー、 ウィンストン・チャーチル、湯川秀樹などが賛同
マーシャル・マクルーハン グローバル・ビレッジ マーシャル・マクルーハン が1962年の著書『グーテンベルクの銀河系』
マクルーハンによれば、電子的な マスメディア(ラジオ、テレビ等にはじまる)によって、それまで人々が コミュニケーション をおこなう障壁になっていた時間と空間の限界が取り払われ、地球規模で対話し、生活できるようになった。この意味で、電子的マスメディアによって地球全土がひとつの村に変貌した。 今日ではグローバル・ヴィレッジ(地球村)といえば主に、 インターネットと World Wide Webを指す。インターネットによって世界中の利用者が相互に連絡を取り合うことが可能になり、コミュニケーションがグローバル化した。同様に、ウェブを介して接続されたコンピュータは、人々の ウェブサイトを相互に結びつける。これによって文化の面でも、社会学的な意味で新しい構造が形成されることになる。
マクルーハンの主張する論点のうち最も画期的だったのは、電子メディアは文字ではなく、話す・聞くという仕方で情報を伝えている、ということである。彼の考えは明らかに 1950 年代の アメリカのテクノロジーと文化から影響を受けている。実際、彼が好んで例に挙げるのは ジャズ、 ラジオ 、電話といったものだった。
本来の可能性としては、諸問題の解決に貢献する世界規模の フォーラムの形成に寄与し、新しい意味の 世界共同体の時代を切り開くこともできたはずなのである。

もし、現在の人類統計比率をきちんと盛り込んで、全世界を100人の村に縮小するとどうなるでしょう。その村には・・・  57人のアジア人
 8人のアフリカ人がいます  52人が女性です
 48人が男性です   70人が有色人種で
 30人が白人  70人がキリスト教以外の人で
 30人がキリスト教  89人が異性愛者で
 11人が同性愛者  6人が全世界の富の59%を所有し、その6人ともがアメリカ国籍  80人は標準以下の居住環境に住み
 70人は文字が読めません  50人は栄養失調に苦しみ
 1人はいま、生まれようとしています  1人は(そうたった1人)は大学の教育を受け
 そしてたった1人だけがコンピューターを所有しています  もしこのように、縮小された全体図から私達の世界を見るなら、相手をあるがままに受け入れること、自分と違う人を理解すること、そして、そういう事実を知るための教育がいかに必要かは火をみるよりあきらかです。
マーシャル・マクルーハングローバル・ビレッ マーシャル・マクルーハンが 1962年の著書『グーテンベルクの銀河 マクルーハンによれば、電子的なマスメディア (ラジオ、テレビ等にはじまる)によって、それまで人々がコミュニケーションをおこなう障壁になっていた時間と空間の限界が取り払われ、地球規模で対話し、生活できるようになった。この意味で、電子的マスメディアによって地球全土がひとつの村に変貌した。

10月 05

As we combine the above measures and proceed with the physical integration of the region, we should also keep in mind that we are building a system that can be integrated with other outside regions since Northeast Asia is striving to become an “open” symbiotic community.
It is of paramount importance to further development in Northeast Asia by promoting cooperative security on the basis of multilateral economic cooperation, rather than building a collective security based on military-related activities.
It would be possible to draw the most effective plan on international public goods through physical integration. There is existing infrastructure, such as transportation corridors including railways and roads in Northeast Asia. According to conventional development measures such as the UNDP’s country program or Japanese ODA, these development plans have been created mainly on the basis of each country’s focus and priority. However as a new method of developing integrated physical infrastructure effectively, a spatial development plan, which is a comprehensive development plan rather than based on each sector’s development, would be significantly more effective in Northeast Asia.
It would not be cost-effective, provided that various infrastructure plans, without integrating each infrastructure. In this context, it is indispensable to physically integrate infrastructure projects, in order to avoid a duplication or disconnection among the borders. For example, construction of communication optical fiber would be consolidated with construction of natural gas pipelines, electric power lines and existing transportation corridors.
A regional project, such as the Tumen River Development Program, should be promoted for the purpose of not only developing a special economic region, but also facilitating regional integration. Through these regional projects, one can expect to effectively connect cities or special economic zones along borders.
Components of a physical integration
The first major component required for the physical integration of Northeast Asia is a transportation corridor. It is important to rebuild a transportation network that is currently disconnected across the borders. As confrontation in Northeast Asia has been continuing for a long time, there is a lack of smooth transportation. It would be possible to create global transportation networks by rebuilding the disconnected areas such as the borders to North Korea. It would be possible to complete an appropriate global network crossing the Pacific Ocean, the Sea of Japan (the East Sea), Siberian land bridge and/or China land bridge, and the Atlantic Ocean.
The second major component is energy security. The Russian Far East reserves are abundant in natural resources, particularly natural gas, which is expected to be the most reliable energy for the 21st century. The Russian Far East holds approximately 30 percent of the world’s natural gas reserves. For energy security, the Northeast Asia natural gas pipeline project, including the lines from North Sakhalin to Hokkaido, North Sakhalin to Khabarovsk to Kyushu through the Korean peninsula, Yakutsk to China, Irkutsk to Beijing through Mongolia, provides the following benefits in this region in terms of energy security.
Natural gas is the most environmentally friendly energy source. It contributes to reducing acid rain problems in particular by increasing China’s dependence on natural gas than coal. The natural gas pipeline contributes to reducing the dependence on the Middle East, reducing the congestion of tankers crossing the Straits of Malacca. The natural gas pipeline, going through North Korea as a transit, contributes to increased confidence-building measures. A lesson learned during the Cold War in Europe shows that natural gas pipelines from Eastern Europe to Western Europe were never cut.
Northeast Asia needs mutual understanding and interdependence. However one of the major constraints for cooperation in this region is the lack of communication. It is expected that building a telecommunication network and promoting tourism development will help facilitate confidence-building measures through business, social and cultural exchanges.

9月 05

Ford Foundation recently said human security is important in terms of encouraging person-to-person cooperation. Also, I think cooperative security and comprehensive security are important. Security has a lot of linkage between the military corrective security and cooperative security. All Japan has to promote is to realize cooperative security while maintaining the U.S.-Japan security treaty. Probably Japan’s military involvement in this region will be 20 or 30 percent, but a 70 percent effort should be concentrated on the cooperative security framework.
Towards physical integration
The grand design for Northeast Asia is aimed at generating stability and prosperity in the region, and it proposes to build a symbiotic community for achieving that goal. One way to build this symbiotic community is to promote physical integration within the region. The following items can be considered as measures to advance physical integration in Northeast Asia.
The first measure is to build a system of multinational infrastructure within the region as international public property. For maximum effectiveness and efficiency, the infrastructure necessary to enable steady regional development needs to be established beyond consideration of national boundaries. Such multilateral infrastructure should include transportation, energy supply, power sharing, and communication systems. To establish such an effective infrastructure at a national level is difficult; what needs to be done is to plan and implement a well-coordinated system for the whole Northeast Asia region.
The lesson we can learn in relation to such system development is that the railroad transport systems in Northeast Asia were planned and implemented at the national level, and this is now hindering the construction of an efficient rail system for the whole region. For example, while the rail track width for Russia and Mongolia is 1,524 mm, for China and North Korea it is 1,435 mm. For this reason, transshipment is required between China–Mongolia, China–Russia, and North Korea–Russia, and this is an obstacle to integration of a regional transport system (combined tracks with four rails have been introduced in some border areas and access to ports has been improved). In building a multinational infrastructure system, we must aim at the construction of an integrated regional system that allows for the efficient use of people, goods and resources in the region.
The second measure is to design and develop the infrastructure facilities of different sectors in an integrated manner. For example, it is more efficient to construct communication cables, power lines and natural gas pipelines in combination, so these facilities should be designed and implemented under a comprehensive regional infrastructure development plan.
The third measure is to achieve infrastructure integration through blanket development of certain areas and their communities. From this perspective, for example, the Tumen River comprehensive development plan can be reassessed and renewed with a new concrete plan. Furthermore, other plans for regional integration include the integration of surrounding areas along development axes (e.g., creating and expanding feeder roads from trunk roads) and promoting strongholds of development that cut across international borders.
The fourth measure deals with the integration of the “soft” components of infrastructure. For example, when a new transport system develops, there is a need for immigration, customs and quarantine systems to be developed as well. Moreover, what is called for is the development of an extensive public health and disease prevention system as well as an emergency medical system that can extend beyond national borders.
The fifth measure is the integration and coordination of research and development and capacity-building programs. In addition to promoting the industrial network and the development of the environmental network, the integration of capacity-building programs, such as higher education and technical and vocational training (including distance education via the Internet) may also be advanced.

7月 05

The objective of the grand design is to create ideal development scenarios and also to create economic spheres like symbiotic communities we can share, while utilizing physical integration to build the national gas pipeline, international public transportation, telecommunication and so on. The largest hydropower dam at the Yalu River running between the border of North Korea and China was built more than 60 years ago and provides energy to North Korea and China.
As Japan had this kind of technology before the Second World War, I recommend bringing international public goods beyond the borders through multilateral cooperation. When we look at a picture of North Korea taken by satellite at night, we can see how North Korea is suffering from an energy crisis. The northern part of the Korean Peninsula is almost completely dark. We can see the constant light of international transportation corridors such as the Siberian railways. There are nine major international transportation corridors in Northeast Asia. But unfortunately, there are no appropriate connections beyond the borders.
Natural gas is the most environmentally friendly energy in the world. Russia and the Far East including west and east Siberia have 20 percent of the natural gas reserves in the world. China has been heavily dependent on coal for more than 70 percent of its energy. Therefore, we have been faced with serious environmental concerns such as acid rain or greenhouse effect. If China shifts from coal to natural gas, it is possible to solve the problem of this environmental issue. Today the natural gas pipeline is from Russian Far East, Mongolia, China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan.
There are two different types of multilateralism in Northeast Asia. One includes China, Central Asia and Russia. Another one is China and ASEAN through the overseas Chinese and the Tumen River Development Program led by the UNDP along the border of North Korea, the Russian Far East and China. UNIDO is involved in this project. Japan and the United States are not keen to support this project because it is a communist-led project. A Cold War structure still remains in this region, and the two different types of projects should be integrated. A Northeast Asia natural gas pipeline project is an ideal multilateral project because all six nations of Northeast Asia would be able to share energy resources reciprocally. And also we can build a telecommunication network, an electric power grid and a tourist development project. This approach has become very cost effective. Japanese ODA or UNDP country programs are based on the countries of priorities.
This is the problem in terms of duplication of hard infrastructure. It is better to have a spatial development project to connect border to border. We can create a cost effective project.
Proposal for a new international organization
How much does it cost to pursue this kind of large-scale project? It costs about $10 billion per year in the next ten to twenty years to create this kind of project. Ten billion dollars is very expensive, but compare that to the cost of reconstruction in Iraq, which will cost $20 billion annually in the next several years. North Korea is the most dangerous country in the world. North Korea is using a brinkmanship. The international community must maintain the position not to give in to North Korea’s blackmail. It’s better to prepare the road map based on preventive diplomacy or cooperative security and spend $10 billion.
If North Korea becomes a member of international financial institutions such as the Asian Development Bank,World Bank or European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in London, these three existing international organizations can provide $1.5 billion and the Japanese bilateral or private sector or several private sectors from all over the world can provide probably $1 billion. As $10 billion is needed, there is a shortfall of about $6 or $7 billion. Therefore, we propose to establish a new international organization in this region.
A new international organization is not easy to build. We must understand that East Asia has the potential to become one of the three poles, along with the EU and NAFTA. The locations of most international organizations are in New York, Washington, DC, Paris, Geneva and Vienna. There are no large international organizations in Asia, only the Asian Development Bank, in Manila, ESCAP in Bangkok, and the United Nations University in Tokyo.
If China builds an international organization, the rest of East Asia will deteriorate. Therefore, the best way is to establish a new international organization, which is able to share three different functions while three major countries such as China, Japan and South Korea are able to share mutual interests. It needs three windows to cover three different functions such as development, social and monetary functions:
Establishing a window for the development funds in China as China will be a major donor country for the development of North Korea.
Establishing a social factor in South Korea as South Korea needs huge amount of money for the unification of the Korean Peninsula.
Establishing monetary function in Japan because Japan is interested in stabilizing monetary functions from the experience of the East Asian financial crisis of 1997.
It is possible to establish one international organization called the East Asian Economic Social Development Organization with three different functions at three different locations

6月 01

In an attempt to introduce a “grand design” of providing for a peace in the region, I would like to make an analogy to John F. Kennedy’s “Towards a Strategy of Peace” speech of June 1963 with my Twelve Point Agenda, which I believe contains essential elements to bring about new regional cooperation, such as the need to create a new regional multilateral organization, to the present-day context. There are also twelve factors in the design, including:
Cooperative security framework based on economic interdependence
Preventive diplomacy; multilateral progressive engagement posture
Symbiotic communities
Japan’s recognition of its history prior to World War II
Physical integration, providing international public goods
Energy security (e.g., natural gas pipelines and electric grids)
International railroad corridors
New regional international organization
U.S.-Japan and U.S.-ROK alliances as cornerstones to stabilize the region and become a backbone of a multilateral framework
Greater tolerance of religions
Intra-regional dialogues
Multilateral, progressive and constructive security posture
There exist three principal conceptual pillars that help accommodate these elements. A first pillar is spatial development. It is to strengthen the exchange of international public goods by physically integrating transport systems, such as railroads. A second pillar is physical integration. It aims to advance economic integration by connecting routes of economic interests—natural resources, communications networks, and transportation ties. Finally, there is regional integration, in which a grand strategy attempts to integrate local economies and provide for special economic zones.
The key tactic is Strategic ODA (Official Development Assistance). I stated that this strategy is instrumental in setting forth preventive diplomacy, addressing human security, or initiating the establishment of a regional economic sphere, all added up to provide for cooperative security framework. Further, Japan, in close association with other key regional players, such as China and South Korea, can play a significant role in organizing consultative relationships with the United States and the European Union to put together a global development plan.
A grand design would likely bring about a win-win situation, from which every regional actor can benefit, and consequently the likelihood of conflict would be dramatically reduced, as the regional players would be forced to decrease their military expenditures.